Research shows TEAM-CBT works

TEAM-CBT is a transdiagnostic process-based framework for conducting evidence-based therapy that includes four core elements known to be related to positive treatment outcomes. Published studies, external scientists, prestigious research organizations, and our clinical research have shown TEAM-CBT can improve mental health. 


More effective than other treatment approaches*


Average amount of suffering reduced per therapy hour


Expect meaningful change within five therapy sessions*

Published research examining the impact of TEAM-CBT

Below is a list of recent (within the past 10 years), peer-reviewed, relevant references that provide empirical support for each of the four aspects (T, E, A, M) of the TEAM-CBT treatment / training framework.

Recent evidence for the importance of T = Testing (also called Routine Outcome Monitoring)

Boswell, J.F., Kraus, D.R., Miller, S.D., Lambert, M.J. (2013). Implementing routine outcome monitoring in clinical practice: Benefits, challenges, and solutions. Psychotherapy Research, Pages 6-19 | Published online: 26 Jul 2013. 

Persons, J.B., Koerner, K., Eidelman, P., Thomas, C., & Liu, H. (2016). Increasing psychotherapists’ adoption and implementation of the evidence-based practice of progress monitoring. Behavior Research and Therapy, January (76), 24-31. 

Solstad, A.M., Kleiven, G.S., Castonguay, L.G., & Moltu, C. (2020). Clinical dilemmas of routine outcome monitoring and clinical feedback: A qualitative study of patient experiences. Psychotherapy Research, 31(2), 200-210.

Recent evidence for the importance of E = Empathy (focusing on the therapeutic alliance and repair of alliance ruptures)

Howick J, Moscrop A, Mebius A, Fanshawe TR, Lewith G, Bishop FL, Mistiaen P, Roberts NW, Dieninytė E, Hu XY, Aveyard P, Onakpoya IJ. (2018). Effects of empathic and positive communication in healthcare consultations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J R Soc Med. 111(7), 240-252.

Huppert, J.D., Kivity, Y., Barlow, H., Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2014). Therapist effects and the outcome-alliance correlation in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behavior Research and Therapy, January(52) 26- 34. 

Zilcha-Mano, S., Muran, J.C., Hungr, C., Eubanks, C.F., Safran, J.D., & Winston, A. (2016). The relationship between alliance and outcome: Analysis of a two-person perspective on alliance and session outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, June 84(6), 484-496.

Recent evidence for the importance of A = Assessment of Resistance (increasing motivation / reducing resistance)

Aviram, A., Westra, H.A., Constantino, M.J., & Antony, M.M. (2016). Responsive management of early resistance in cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(9), 783-794.

Burns, D., Westra, H., Trockel, M., & Fisher, A. (2013). Motivation and changes in depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37, 368-379. 

Pombo, S., Luísa Figueira, M., Walter, H., & Lesch, O. (2016). Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving. Psychiatry Research, 243, 53-60. 

Westra, H.A., Constantino, M.J., & Antony, M.M. (2016, March 17). Integrating motivational interviewing with cognitive-behavioral therapy for severe generalized anxiety disorder: an allegiance-controlled randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 

Westra, H. A., & Norouzian, N. (2018). Using motivational interviewing to manage process markers of ambivalence and resistance in cognitive behavioral therapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 42(2), 193–203. 

Recent evidence supporting the efficacy of M = Methods

Angelakis, I., Huggett, C., Gooding, P., Panagioti, M., & Hodkinson, A. (2022). Effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural therapies of varying complexity in reducing depression in adults: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 221(2), 459-467. 

Boswell, J, F., Farchione, J., Sauer-Zavala, S., Murray, H.W., Fortune, M.R., & Barlow, D.H. (2013). Anxiety Sensitivity and Interoceptive Exposure: A Transdiagnostic Construct and Change Strategy. Behavior Therapy. 44(3), 417-431 

Carpenter, J.K., Andrews, L.A., Witcraft, S.M., Powers, M.B., Smits, J.A., Hofmann, S.F. (2018). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Depression and Anxiety, 35(6), 502-514.

Craske, M.G., Treanor, M., Conway, C.C., Zbozinek, T., Vervliet, B. (2014). Maximizing exposure therapy: An inhibitory learning approach. Behavior Research and Therapy, (58), 10-23.
Fang, A., Sawyer, A.T., Asnaani, A., & Hofmann, S. (2013). Social mishap exposures for social anxiety disorder: an important treatment ingredient. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(2), 213-220. 

Lungu A, Jun JJ, Azarmanesh O, Leykin Y, Chen CE. (2020). Blended Care-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression and Anxiety in Real-World Settings: Pragmatic Retrospective Study. J Med Internet Res; 22(7).

Find a therapist

Get matched with a therapist proven and vetted to help you feel better faster

Therapist looking to increase your effectiveness?